All species of archaea and bacteria have a 16S gene that codes for the small subunit of the ribosomes. This gene has highly variable regions (V1 till V9) used for taxonomical classifications. The gene also has conserved regions that can be used as targets for primers to amplify the highly variable regions.
Through introduction of Next-generation Sequencing (NGS), the 16S rRNA method is now also widely used to deconvolute complex microbial communities. NGS is the best technique to study any microbiome as Sanger sequencing fails to detect multiple bacteria in one sample and culture is labor intensive and many bacterial species are extremely difficult to culture.
EasySeq™ 16S Microbiome Library Prep Kit, powered by Reverse Complement PCR (RC-PCR), provides a one-tube single reaction cost-effective workflow to characterize the microbiome through analysis of the hypervariable regions V3-V4. The main reason for using the V3 and V4 regions is that they contain the maximum nucleotide heterogeneity and display the maximum discriminatory power needed for complex samples, to evaluate bacterial diversity and detect the abundance of microbes in various sample types. Due to EasySeq™ 16S Microbiome Library Prep Kit high sensitivity, even extremely low abundant bacteria can be detected.